AlphaDAO - Secure Shell Connections
SSH (Secure Shell)
Connection String Parameters
In simple environments, an application server is typically installed behind a firewalled (protected) load balancer and connects over a separate and secure network to a database server. With the advent of distributed and cloud based computing environments, it is not uncommon to have a database in a separate data center from the application server (or other database clients). Connecting to a database over the internet introduces a number of variables affecting security. We want to make sure that any application you deploy with Alpha Anywhere can establish secure connections with your database; no matter where that database is.
Note: SSH is often used to refer to Secure Shell in general. There is an old SSH protocol that has been replaced by a newer SSH2 protocol. Alpha Anywhere makes use of the SSH2 protocol, so SSH is used in this documentation to refer to SSH using the SSH2 protocol.
In order to connect securely to a database that is accessed over the internet, it is often necessary to create a secure pipe to connect to the database. This pipe, (referred to as a tunnel) may route database requests across multiple servers to gain access to a database server behind a firewall. SSH (Secure Shell) is a protocol for creating a secure connection (called a channel) over an unsecured network between a client machine and a server machine using the TCP/IP protocol (typically over port 22).
To connect via an existing tunnel, you would simply connect to an existing open tunnel on the local machine using the designated port (for example localhost:33061) that was set up when the SSH tunnel was established.
Alpha Anywhere makes it possible to create a channel specifically for a connection automatically. Database connection strings can specify the parameters required to establish a channel over an SSH tunnel as part of the database open. The SQL::Connection object manages a process level cache of tunnels. Using connection pooling, an application server can achieve good performance; even over an SSH tunnel.
For each SQL::Connection::Open() call, Alpha Anywhere makes sure a tunnel is started and retrieves the local port number of the tunnel assigned to the connection string. The connection is then automatically rerouted to the local port in order to establish a connection to the actual server. Internally, the host and port number you specified on the general tab are used to establish a tunnel. Actual database connections are then made through the tunnel by connecting to the local host and the tunnel port as if the database was local.
When SQL::Connection::Close() is called explicitly or because a connection goes out of scope, the tunnel is left open and cached based on the connection string. The tunnel will remain open as long as the process is running. Leaving a tunnel open improves the performance of your application because establishing a connection to SSH is a very expensive operation. If you want to close the tunnel when you close the connection, pass the value .t., for example "cn.Close(.t.)".
- In order to make use of SSH tunneling you must install and configure an SSH server accessible from your database client to provide access to your database. We will not discuss installing configuring and making an SSH server available here. Consult the documentation for your SSH server.
- SSH is different than TLS/SSL database connections; which are established to a database server directly via TCP/IP. TLS verifies the identity of the server using X509 certificates and then encrypts all communication between the client and the server. If you wanted to, you could connect to a database server using TLS over an open SSH channel. The performance would, of course, suffer, because SSH and TLs would each be encrypting the requests at their respective levels of the protocols involved, and introducing additional overhead.
In order to create an SSH tunnel we must identify the server and port to connect to that is running an SSH server and provide authentication information. Authentication can be done using a password or an SSH public/private key pair. Both are supported here.
You can also support a limited number of open channels to keep the load on the server from becoming excessive. Note that the number of threads ultimately limits the number of open connections through the tunnel for each process.
A5SSHTunnel - can be 'Y' or 'N'.
The default value is 'N'.
This parameter enables or disables SSH. If A5SSHTunnel is set to 'Y', and the connection cannot be established through the tunnel, an error is returned.
A5SSHHost - The name of the TCP/IP host where the SSH server is running.
There is no default for this value. You must provide a valid DNS name or TCP/IP address.
A5SSHPort - This is the TCP/IP port to use in connecting to the SSH server named in A5SSHHost (above).
The default vale is 22.
A5SSHPreferredLocalPort - This is the TCP/IP port to prefer for local connections to the SSH tunnel when it is opened.
The default value is 0, meaning any available port may be used.
If the preferred port is already in use, another available port is used.
Note: If you set this value, be sure to check the actual port assigned after connecting by calling SSHTunnelStatus() on the open connection and checking the NativeCode field of the CallResult property for the port number instead of relying on the port number you requested.
A5SSHUser - The user at the SSH server that you want to connect as.
This user must be recognized by the SSH server and be authorized to connect via SSH.
There is no default for this value.
A5SSHAuthenticationMethod - This parameter can have one of three values:
- You must provide a valid password in the A5SSHPassword Parameter (discussed below).
- You must provide actual values for the parameters A5SSHPublicKey and A5SSHPrivatekey (discussed below).
- You must provide a complete path to the files containing the public and private keys in the parameters
A5SSHPublicKey and A5SSHPrivatekey (discussed below).
Note: When deployed on an application server, the file must be visible to the running server and access to the file for read must be allowed.
The default value for A5SSHAuthenticationMethod is "Password".
A5SSHPassword - If A5SSHAuthenticationMethod contains the value "Password", this parameter must contain a string or Base64 encoded value (prefixed with ":A5:B64:") containing the password to use in establishing a connection with the SSH server.
A5SSHPrivateKey - If A5SSHAuthenticationMethod contains the value "KeyInMemory" then you will need to set this parameter to the full contents of the private key file required to authenticate your user on the SSH server.
If A5SSHAuthenticationMethod contains the value "KeyInFile" then you must provide the full path to the file containing the private key required to authenticate your user on the SSH server.
This parameter is not used if A5SSHAuthenticationMethod is set to "Password".
Note: The private key is a PEM format file. It will begin with a header like the following "-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----".
A5SSHPublicKey - If A5SSHAuthenticationmethod Contains the value "KeyInMemory" then you will need to set this parameter to the full contents of the public key file required to authenticate your user on the SSH server.
If A5SSHAuthenticationmethod Contains the value "KeyInFile" then you must provide the full path to the file containing the public key required to authenticate your user on the SSH server.
This parameter is not used if A5SSHAuthenticationMethod is set to "Password".
Note: The public key will have a format something like "ssh-rsa XXXXXXXXXXXXX username". This is an SSH key. If your public key is generated in PEM format, you may need to use a tool such as PuttyGen on Windows to convert the format.
A5SSHWorkerThreadCount - Worker thread count determines the number of worker threads created for the tunnel.
Set this value to limit the number of possible concurrent connections across all connection pools that share a server and the same target database server and port.
The worker thread count is specific to a process. Each process can have that many worker threads active.
The default value for worker thread count is 10.
A tunnel is created when the first connection is opened to the database for a connection string. The number of worker threads will be adjusted as needed until the maximum number of worker threads is created. Each open or pooled connection consumes one worker thread, so it is important that you understand the settings for connection pooling as well.
A5SSHTrace - When set to 'Y', this turns on tracing for SSH tunnels.
This is an advanced level feature currently being used by Alpha Software development team.
As the feature matures, we will try to make tracing more readable for general usage in debugging tunnels in deployed applications.
The default value for A5SSHTrace is 'N'.
A5SSHTraceName - The key to be used for tracing.
This value affects the formatted file name for all trace messages generated by SSH tunnels.
There is no default for this parameter.